submitted by EraSwap to u/EraSwap [link] [comments]
Era Swap Network
This Whitepaper is for Era Swap Network. Its purpose is solely to provide prospective community members with information about the Era Swap Ecosystem & Era Swap Network project. This paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an offer of securities or any other financial or investment instrument in any jurisdiction.
The Developers disclaim any and all responsibility and liability to any person for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly from (1) reliance on any information contained in this paper, (2) any error, omission or inaccuracy in any such information, or (3) any action resulting therefrom
Digital Assets are extremely high-risk, speculative products. You should be aware of the risks involved and fully consider before participating in Digital assets whether it’s appropriate for you. You should only participate if you are an experienced investor with sophisticated knowledge of financial markets and you fully understand the risks associated with digital assets. We strongly advise you to take independent professional advice before making any investment or participating in any way. You should check what rules and protections apply to your respective jurisdictions before investing or participating in any way. The Creators & community will not compensate you for any losses from trading, investment or participating in any way. You should read whitepaper carefully before participating and consider whether these products are right for you.
TABLE OF CONTENT
· Introduction to Era Swap Network
· Development Overview
· Era Swap Utility Platform
· Alpha-release Development Plan
· Era Swap Network Version 1: Specification
· Bunch Structure: 10
· Converting ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
· Era Swap Ecosystem
· Social Links
The early smart contracts of Era Swap Ecosystem like TimeAlly, Newly Released Tokens, Assurance, BetDeEx of Era Swap Ecosystem, are deployed on Ethereum mainnet. These smart contracts are finance-oriented (DeFi), i.e. most of the transactions are about spending or earning of Era Swap tokens which made paying the gas fees in Ether somewhat intuitive to the user (withdrawal charges in bank, paying tax while purchasing burgers) but transactions that are not token oriented like adding a nominee or appointee voting also needs Ether to be charged. As more Era Swap Token Utility platform ideas kept appending to the Era Swap Main Whitepaper, more non-financial transaction situations arise like updating status, sending a message, resolving a dispute and so on. Paying extensively for such actions all day and waiting for the transaction to be included in a block and then waiting for enough block confirmations due to potential chain re-organizations is counter-intuitive to existing free solutions like Facebook, Gmail. This is the main barrier that is stopping Web 3.0 from coming to the mainstream.
As alternatives to Ethereum, there are few other smart contract development platforms that propose their own separate blockchain that features for higher transaction throughput, but they compromise on decentralization for improving transaction speeds. Moreover, the ecosystem tools are most advancing in Ethereum than any other platform due to the massive developer community.
With Era Swap Network, the team aims to achieve scalability, speed and low-cost transactions for Era Swap Ecosystem (which is currently not feasible on Ethereum mainnet), without compromising much on trustless asset security for Era Swap Community users.
Introduction to Era Swap Network
Era Swap Network (ESN) aims to solve the above-mentioned problems faced by Era Swap Ecosystem users by building a side-blockchain on top of Ethereum blockchain using the Plasma Framework.
Era Swap Network leverages the Decentralisation and Security of Ethereum and the Scalability achieved in the side-chain, this solves the distributed blockchain trilema. In most of the other blockchains, blocks are a collection of transactions and all the transactions in one block are mined by a miner in one step. Era Swap Network will consist of Bunches of Blocks of Era Swap Ecosystem Transactions.
Scalable and Secure
A miner mines all the blocks in a bunch consequently and will commit the bunch-root to the ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet.
Initially, we will start with a simple Proof-of-Authority (PoA) based consensus of EVM to start the development and testing of Era Swap Ecosystem Smart Contracts as quickly as possible on the test-net. We will call this as an alpha-release of ESN test-net and only internal developers will work with this for developing smart contracts for Era Swap Ecosystem. User’s funds in a Plasma implementation with a simple consensus like PoA are still secured as already committed bunch-roots cannot be reversed.
Eventually, we want to arrive on a more control-decentralized consensus algorithm like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) probably, so that even if the chain operator shuts down their services, a single Era Swap Ecosystem user somewhere in the world can keep the ecosystem alive by running software on their system and similarly more people can join to decentralize the control further. In this PoS version, we will modify the Parity Ethereum client in such a way, that at least 50% of transaction fees collected will go to the Luck Pool of NRT Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet and rest can be kept by miner of the blocks/bunch of blocks if they wish. After achieving such an implementation, we will release this as a beta version to the community for testing the software on their computers with Kovan ERC20 Era Swaps (Ethereum test-net).
Era Swap Decentralised Ecosystem
Following platforms are to be integrated:
Alpha-release Development Plan
Era Swap Network Version 1 : Specification
The Version 1 release of ESN plans to fulfill the requirements for political decentralisation and transparency in dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem using Blockchain Technology. After acquiring sufficient number of users, a version 2 construction of ESN will be feasible to enable administrative decentralization, such that the Era Swap Ecosystem will be run and managed by the Era Swap Community and will no longer require the operator to support for it's functioning.
Era Swap Network (ESN) Version 1 will be a separate EVM-compatible sidechain attached to Ethereum blockchain as it’s parent chain. ESN will achieve security through Plasma Framework along with Proof-of-Authority consensus for faster finality. The idea behind plasma framework is to avoid high transaction fees and high transaction confirmation times on Ethereum mainnet by instead doing all the ecosystem transactions off-chain and only post a small information to an Ethereum Smart Contract which would represent hash of plenty of ecosystem transactions. Also, to feature movement of Era Swap Tokens from Ethereum blockchain to ESN using cryptographic proof, reverse plasma of Ethereum on ESN will be implemented.
Also, submitting hash of each ESN blocks to ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum would force ESN to have a block time equal to or more than Ethereum’s 15 second time as well as it would be very much costly for operator to post lot of hashes to an Ethereum Smart Contract. This is why, merkle root of hashes of bunch of blocks would instead be submitted to ESN Plasma Smart Contact on Ethereum.
Actors involved in the ESN:
Bunch StructureA Bunch Structure in Smart Contract will consist of the following:
• Start Block Number: It is the number of first ESN block in the bunch.
• Bunch Depth: It is Merkle Tree depth of blocks in the bunch. For e.g. If bunch depth is 3, there would be 8 blocks in the bunch and if bunch depth is 10, there would be 1024 blocks in the bunch. Bunch depth of Bunches on ESN Plasma Contract is designed to be variable. During the initial phases of ESN, it would be high, for e.g. 15, to avoid ether expenditure and would be decreased in due course of time.
• Transactions Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the transaction roots in the bunch. This is used by Smart Contract to verify that a transaction was sent on the chain.
• Receipts Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the receipt roots in the bunch. This is used to verify that the transaction execution was successful.
• Timestamp: This value is the time when the bunch proposal was submitted to the smart contract. After submission, there is a challenge period before it is finalised.
Converting ES-ERC20 to ERC-NA and BACKOn Ethereum Blockchain, the first class cryptocurrency is ETH and rest other tokens managed by smart contracts are second class. On ESN, there is an advancement to have Era Swaps as the first class cryptocurrency. This cryptocurrency will feature better user experience and to differentiate it from the classic ERC20 Era Swaps, it will be called as Era Swap Natives (ES-Na). According to the Era Swap Whitepaper, maximum 9.1 Million ES will exist which will be slowly released in circulation every month.
Era Swaps will exist as ES-ERC20 as well as in form of ES-Na. One of these can be exchanged for the other at 1:1 ratio.
Following is how user will convert ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
HARD ExitSince the blocks are produced and transactions are validated by few block producers, it exposes a possibility for fraud by controlling the block producer nodes. Because ESN is based on the Plasma Model, when failure of sidechain occurs or the chain halts, users can hard exit their funds directly from the Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum by giving a Proof of Holdings.
HOld ES Tokens Swapping with New ES TokensThe old ES Tokens will be valueless as those tokens will not be accepted in ESN because of NRT (New Released Tokens) and TimeAlly contracts on mainnet which is causing high gas to users, hence reducing interactions. Also, there was an event of theft of Era Swap Tokens and after consensus from majority of holders of Era Swap Tokens; it was decided to create a new contract to reverse the theft to secure the value of Era Swap Tokens of the community. Below is the strategy for swapping tokens:
TimeAlly and TSGAP: Majority of Era Swap Community have participated in TimeAlly Smart Contract in which their tokens are locked for certain period of time until which they cannot move them. Such holders will automatically receive TimeAlly staking of specific durations from the operator during initialization of ESN.
Liquid Tokens: Holders of Liquid Era Swap Tokens have to transfer the old tokens to a specified Ethereum wallet address managed by team. Following that, team will audit the token source of the holder (to eliminate exchange of stolen tokens) and send new tokens back to the wallet address.
Post-Genesis Tokens Return ProgramPrimary asset holding of Era Swap tokens will exist on Ethereum blockchain as an ERC20 compatible standard due to the highly decentralised nature of the blockchain. Similar to how users deposit tokens to an cryptocurrency exchange for trading and then withdraw the tokens back, users will deposit tokens to ESN Contract to enter Era Swap Ecosystem and they can withdraw it back from ESN Contract for exiting from ecosystem network. The design of the token system will be such that, it will be compatible with the future shift (modification or migration of ESN version 1) to ESN version 2, in which an entirely new blockchain setup might be required.
To manage liquidity, following genesis structure will be followed:
9.1 billion ES-ERC20 will be issued by ERC20 smart contract on Ethereum Blockchain, out of which the entire circulating supply (including liquid and TimeAlly holdings) of old ES will be received to a team wallet.
TimeAlly holdings of all users will be converted to ES-Na and distributed on ESN TimeAlly Smart Contract by team to the TimeAlly holders on their same wallet address.
Liquid user holdings will be sent back to the users to the wallet address from which they send back old ES tokens (because some old ES are deposited on exchange wallet address).
ES-Na will be issued in the genesis block to an ESN Manager Smart Contract address. It will manage all the deposits and withdrawals as well as NRT releases.
Following are identified risks to be taken care of during the development of ESN:
Network Spamming: Attackers can purchase ES from the exchange and make a lot of transactions between two accounts. This is solved by involving gas fees. A setting of 200 nanoES minimum gas price will be set, which can be changed as per convenience.
DDoS: Attackers can query public nodes for computationally heavy output data. This will overload the public node with requests and genuine requests might get delayed. Block producers RPC is private, so they will continue to produce blocks. To manage user’s denial of service, the provider in dApps needs to be designed in such a way such that many public nodes will be queried simple information (let’s say latest block number) and the one which response quickly to user will be selected.
AWS is down: To minimize this issue due to cloud providers down, there will be enough nodes on multiple cloud providers to ensure at least one block producer is alive.
User deposit double spending: User deposits ES on Ethereum, gets ES-Na on ESN. Then the issue happens that there are re-org on ETH mainnet and the user’s transaction is reversed. Since ETH is not a fixed chain and as per PoW 51% attack can change the blocks. As Ethereum is now enough mature and by statistics forked blocks are at most of height 2. So it is safe to consider 15 confirmations.
Exit Game while smooth functioning: User starts a hard exit directly from Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum, then spends his funds from the plasma chain too. To counter this, the exit game will be disabled, only when ESN halts, i.e. fails to submit block header within the time the exit game starts. This is because it is difficult to mark user’s funds as spent on ESN.
Vulnerability in Ecosystem Smart Contracts: Using traditional methods to deploy smart contracts results in a situation where if a bug is found later, it is not possible to change the code. Using a proxy construction for every ecosystem smart contract solves this problem, and changing a proxy can be given to a small committee in which 66% of votes are required, this is to prevent a malicious change of code due to compromising of a single account or similar scenario.
ChainID replay attacks: Using old and traditional ways to interact with dApps can cause loss to users, hence every dApp will be audited for the same.
ConclusionEra Swap Network is an EVM-compatible sidechain attached to the Ethereum blockchain through Plasma Framework. This allows off-chain processing of Era Swap Ecosystem transactions and posting only the hash of the bunch to Ethereum. This greatly reduces the high network fee and confirmation time issues faced by the current Era Swap Ecosystem DApps deployed on Ethereum. Also, having a separate EVM-compatible blockchain tailored to Era Swap Ecosystem improves the user experience to a higher extent. Since by design, Plasma Framework makes the Era Swap Network as secure as the Ethereum Network, user's funds on the network would be secure as well.
We believe Era Swap Network will help scale dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem to onboard the increasing numbers of users.
Era Swap Ecosystem
Era Swap Ecosystem consist of multiple interlinked platforms which is powered by Era swap (ES) token, a decentralized utility token to be used on below utility platforms. Users can access the Platforms through Era Swap Life which is the Single Sign on (SSO) gateway to the one world of Era Swap Ecosystem.
Era Swap Life: https://eraswap.life/
• TimeAlly DApp -> Decentralized Token Vesting: https://www.timeally.io/
• BetDeEx -> Decentralized prediction platform: https://www.betdeex.com/
• Swappers Wall -> Social Time Ledgerise: https://timeswappers.com/swapperswall
• TimeSwappers -> Global P2P marketplace: https://timeswappers.com/
• BuzCafe -> Connects local P2P outlets: https://buzcafe.com/
• DaySwappers -> Unique Affiliate Program: https://dayswappers.com/
• Era Swap Academy -> E-mart for skill development: https://eraswap.academy/
• Value of Farmers (VOF) -> Farming ecosystem: http://valueoffarmers.org/ coming soon
• ComputeEx -> P2P lending and borrowing: https://computeex.net/ coming soon
• DateSwappers -> Next gen dating: coming soon
Smart Contract address
Era Swap Token (ES)
Newly Released Token (NRT) https://etherscan.io/address/0x20ee679d73559e4c4b5e3b3042b61be723828d6c#code
BetDeEx DApp https://etherscan.io/address/0x42225682113E6Ed3616B36B4A72BbaE376041D7c#code
Era Swap Whitepaper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_whitepaper.pdf
Era Swap Light Paper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_lightpaper.pdf
Howey Test: https://eraswaptoken.io/era-swap-howey-test-letter-august7-2018.php
Era Swap SOCIAL LINKS
Note TPTB_need_war posted the same statement about ETH in three threads, because suddenly 5 or 6 new threads all about pumping Ethereum appeared today. If the pumpers can make three threads, then why can't they all be rebutted? They can spam, but the opposing opinion and facts can't be. As if the opposition is the spammer but spamming the Altcoin Discussion with a proliferation of Ethereum pump threads is not spamming. Roll EyesQuote from: damn_the_truth on Today at 05:06:30 AM TPTB_need_war was banned for 3 days for writing in big red letters that "Ethereum is broken and can't be fixed" and proceeded to defend this point factually.They allow excessive trolling and scams no problem though.
And so the mods have now demonstrated they are involved in the pump of Ethereum.
So much for the objectivity of this forum.
Quote from: WilderX on Today at 08:36:10 AM y0 newbs, you talking about issues with mining? Did you know ETH goes POS this year?Yo clueless n00b, do you not understand the PoS doesn't rectify the fundamental flaw in the economics of the verification of long running scripts that I explained upthread and for which I have been banned for trying to point out in the numerous threads pumping Ethereum that spammed the Altcoin Discussion forum today.
Quote from: stoat on Today at 05:58:42 AM You still don't get it do you? The hype for ethereum is actually real. As in, it's our best hope. And people who actually want crypto to succeed as an idea will get behind it.Oh because it is our only hope, then we have to ignore the fact that after more than a year since they took and spent ICO money, they still haven't solved the most fundamental issue of the block chain technology required for long running scripts (if they want scaling and decentralization).
Quote from: stoat on Today at 05:58:42 AM Tptb want war, well, the entire time ive visited this forum he is either wasting everyones time with mental masturbation or simply stumbling from thread to thread FUDDing down every coin that would dare to challenge his "intellectual superiority".Because you are not interested in actually solving the core technical challenges that inhibit cryptocurrency from scaling out to the masses and being compatible with marketing strategies that can do so, such as the one I will drop on the world.
Quote from: Elokane on January 25, 2016, 12:56:02 PMSo you must be younger guy Dor who I've viewed in the Hangout videos in the Synereo channel on YouTube?
Quote from: TPTB_need_war on January 24, 2016, 05:27:06 AMSpot on!
Quote from: CoinHoarder on January 24, 2016, 03:28:48 AM I think social media can possibly be taken over by cryptocurrency/decentralized/blockchain technology. Think about it... Facebook has a market capitalization of 266.3 billion. What if a portion of their net profit was distributed to its users instead? Which service would you use... one that makes money off of you providing you nothing in return, or one that pays you to use its service? There are likely a few projects attempting to capitalize on this space. The only one off the top of my head I can name is Synereo and I am on the fence as to whether it is is a legit project or a P&D... I am waiting on the sidelines for now. http://www.synereo.com/I will respond to the rest of your informative post later (as I need to go outside on this Sunday).
I think Synereo may be conceptually on the right track, in that ads should preferrably be content that users want to see. I can envision content providers being creative in how they advertise products within enjoyable content. The bottom line is the economics per my prior post in reply to TechorMarketing. There were one or two ads on Google that were so interesting to me, I wanted to save a copy of the video ad. Meaning the way to beat Google is by making the advertising more efficient, thus superior ROI for all participants (advertiser, content creator, and viewer). If the superior algorithms require decentralization and cutting out the middle man, then Google with all its technical prowess can do nothing to compete.
Quote I only scanned a portion of their white paper. I believe they may have Sybil attack problems in their attention model (thus being gamed and not having the result intended), but I can't yet judge that with any certainty as I need to study it more carefully.The attention model is mine. We've designed it carefully against Sybil attacks. If you think you've identified an attack vector, do let us know -- I'll give you with an AMP bounty for it.
You've given me something very intellectually deep to chomp on, so thank you. I love conceptual paradigm shifts and I like to analyze models. I will need more time on this.
Looks to me as though they are serious. The devil is in the details on their technical model. They have a brainy looking CSO mathematician, so perhaps some of the model theory is originating from him.
Feel free to join our Slack channel at slack.synereo.com and chat with us there directly.
Quote from: Elokane on Today at 12:01:35 PM It is common knowledge that Greg, Synereo's CSO, is leading the design of Casper, Ethereum's new proposed Proof of Stake blockchain: https://blog.ethereum.org/2015/12/28/understanding-serenity-part-2-caspe He has spoken about the design principles of the technology underlying this effort, what would allow it to scale, in the recent Ethereum developer conference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzahKc_ukfMAnd appears Greg is the greying long-haired mathematician in Seattle that I've viewed on the same videos.
Synereo is NOT building their technology on Ethereum. Rather, it is Ethereum who are using Greg's decades of expertise in the field, and Synereo technology, to build their own.
Ethereum has provided Synereo with developer grants for this purpose. Hopefully, collaboration will continue in other ways as well. We also believe that our notion of a "smart contract", which we call a social contract, is more advanced, mature and scalable than anyone else's. People in the industry are starting to get a sense of this as well, including our friends at Ethereum. http://blog.synereo.com/2015/03/06/social-contracts-pt-ii/
A comprehensive post going into detail about all of these subjects are in the works.
Feel free to ask any other question about this here or on our slack channel at slack.synereo.com.
Quote from: tokeweed on Today at 09:55:40 AM I appreciate that you're trying to get your argument out. And you do have some points to think about. But this is a time of less talk and more trades. There's profit to be made in this current price run, which could be one of the largest runs we've seen in altcoins.You can't speak for all readers, because you are not all readers.
Quote from: Elokane on Today at 01:16:08 PM 2. Well, we think we have a solution! Would you like to take a look at the post Greg is writing on the subject? We'd value your direct feedback on it. This approach is different from the one Ethereum espoused before, and both Vitalik and Vlad are working with Greg to develop it now.Will do after I finish watching the video.
Quote from: Elokane on Today at 01:16:08 PM 3. We have a mechanism taking into account a few parameters to make it so people who behave in exactly the way you describe have very little, if any, impact on this economy. Generally, we're looking for actions that have high entropy; if "B", your GF, is essentially a copy of "A", you, there's very little information there.Is that specifically covered in the white paper or a design improvement hence?
Quote from: Elokane on Today at 01:23:51 PM He's providing valuable constructive feedback, which we always welcome!Thanks. Academics understand their life is finite and thus peer review in valuable so they don't waste time down a dead end.
The platform layer is the middle layer of the system, and plays a role as a bridge between application layer and base layer. The platform layer is categorized as support component and function component according to function. The support component provides functional components with basic function supporting. The platform layer is connected to blockchain of base layer through the functional components, providing the application layer with content distribution, sharing and payment service based on blockchain. The platform layer architecture is shown in Figure 2.submitted by ulordchain to u/ulordchain [link] [comments]
The core function of the platform layer is to build a basic network and service environment for content sharing platform. The main functional modules are as follows.
1.Ulord protocolUlord protocol is foundation of data transmission and service layer. The user based on Ulord protocol can upload resources quickly, search and purchase the interesting content. Ulord protocol realizes data distributed organization and accounting by defining a series of rules.
Distributed general ledger
The foundation of Ulord protocol is distributed general ledger, which is the foundation to generate encryption currency (UlordToken). The difference between Ulord system and traditional bank and payment system is the trust system based on decentralization. The trust mechanism is achieved through interaction of different participants. Through a distributed consensus mechanism, the transaction becomes credible and every accepted transaction will be recorded in blockchain, namely distributed ledger establishment.
Storage of internal data of Ulord blockchain is carried out in the key value pair. Each key corresponds to corresponding resource or its metadata name, and through the search based on key name, the content resources of user’s attention is returned. In addition to name and element of the stored resources in Ulord, the remaining data storage mode of blockchain is completely consistent with bitcoin block structure. But the block hash algorithm, block reward function, block size, total number of blocks and offline chain in this project are optimized.
Ulord network is the infrastructure to extend Ulord blockchain original accounting and payment function. Its main function is to provide the internet environment for the users in paying, searching, downloading and uploading resources in blockchain. Accessing to Ulord is a prerequisite for sharing and distribution of contents. Different from HTTP, DNS or other protocols of traditional www Internet, Ulord network is based on Ulord protocol for user communication and data exchange. In application form, Ulord acts as the background daemon. On the one hand, it monitors the data request of the machine; on the other hand, it monitors other nodes in the network and exchanges data with them.
2.Ulord network serviceUlord network service is based on Ulord protocol, integrated with P2P downloading, distributed file organization, intelligent learning and other technologies, which constitute different functional modules. Ulord network service can be flexibly set according to user’s needs. Currently, the services provided mainly include the following categories.
Fast content search service
Ulord protocol provides metadata-based resource classification function. Each user resource can not only follow traditional search function based on description information, but also has the following characteristics: a. It provides fast resource location based on content addressing, rather than based on domain name addressing. File has a unique existence. When a file is added to Ulord network, a unique encrypted hash value will be assigned to the content based on the calculation. b. In addition to storage of hash value, blockchain running on Ulord is extended to support the storage of hash value table of files. When each network access occurs, query of the address of the file on chain is conducted.
Content distributed storage service
Ulord uses P2P hypermedia protocol, making the internet faster, more secure and more open. All nodes in Ulord form a globally oriented, peer-to-peer distributed file system, and all computing devices with the same file system are connected together. Each file and all the blocks are endowed with a unique fingerprint called encryption hash. Each node, through determining of hash value of file, judges the redundant files, to ensure that the data is not redundant in a single node. In the search for documents, you can find file storage node by the hash value of file to find the file you need; next, Ulord provides the history version controller of file, supports multi-node using and saves different versions of files to achieve file’s history status tracking.
Secondly, file storage in Ulord is not mandatory for every node to store all contents. The owner of node can choose data to be stored. For the nodes stored with large amounts of content, Ulord billing model automatically calculates the user benefits through the data amount of downloading service of file, so as to encourage users to upgrade their hardware resources to provide more comprehensive data storage and maintenance service to obtain benefits.
Node customization service
Ulord node includes centralization node and lightweight node. The centralization node has client to store all historical records (all transactions of all users) of UlordToken, manages user’s wallet, and can directly start trading on Ulord network. Node can handle all aspects of agreement, achieve independent verification of the entire blockchain and any transaction, and provide completely autonomous and independent transaction verification. But the centralization node client needs to consume a lot of computer resources (for example, more than 125 GB disk, 2 GB RAM). The lightweight node is deployed with lightweight client. Lightweight client, known as simple payment verification (SPV) client, connected to the complete node of Ulord, and used to access the transaction information. But the local place is used for storing the user wallet, and is independently created, validating and transferring the transactions. The lightweight client and Ulord are directly mutual without intermediary.
BitTorrent peer-to-peer content distribution service
Ulord, based on blockchain accounting, integrates BitTorrent peer-to-peer content distribution protocol, and adopts efficient software distribution system and peer-to-peer technology for sharing of large volume of files (such as a movie or TV show). Each of users can provide uploading service just like Ulord redistribution of nodes. In the traditional internet, downloading server provides each user issuing the request of downloading with downloading service. The working mode of BitTorrent is different. Holder of distributor or file sends the file to each user, and then it is forwarded by the user to other users; users forward their own files, until downloading of all users is complete. This method can make downloading server handle multiple files of large volume at the same time without occupying a lot of bandwidth.
Distributed hash index service
Ulord uses a distributed hash table (DHT, Distributed Hash Table) to organize the namespace of the user resource. Through the DHT, the relationship mapping (key, value) is realized in network nodes. DHT is a distributed system without center point to provide the key->value query. The mapping information from key to value is stored in many nodes in a distributed manner. Changes of data and node will only affect part of nodes, without an impact on all nodes. As a basic architecture, DHT can be used to build more complex applications, such as distributed file system, domain name service, instant messaging, P2P file sharing and content distribution platform. DHT defines a keyword space, such as bit string set of all 160 digits, then through certain algorithm, the keyword is mapped to all nodes of the whole DHT system. This algorithm is called consistent hashing. Through this algorithm, DHT can find a node according to a keyword and then operate the node, such as storing of data, query of data and so on.
Each node in DHT only needs to be connected with other nodes. A keyword is used to access any node, and the node can transmit information to the node corresponding to the key for processing. This process is called key-based routing. The search engine can get seed file from DHT net node through the character string without relying on seed server. BT download uses the public DHT network, which can greatly reduce the dependence on seed server.
Ulord resource self-purification service
Ulord is a decentralized network without center administrator to review and control content, so it is inevitable that there will be “inappropriate” content resources. Ulord is designed with network voting mode to support user node to initiate proposal, and vote on the content in the net resources. When voting results satisfy certain conditions, it is recognized as “inappropriate” content; the system can make “inappropriate” resources not be accessed by the unlimited increasing of resource charge or making resource offline.
In Ulord, communication, storage, release and downloading of resources, in addition to the completion of corresponding application functions, are regarded as a transaction in blockchain. Most transactions in the network contains transaction fees (miner fee), such as publishing and downloading of resource. In Ulord network, users are encouraged to publish and spread high-quality resources. The main billing behavior mainly includes the following categories:
Release resources: when users name the resources, it is required to deposit certain amount of UlordToken; the deposited UlordToken are locked in user account, which cannot be transacted. After the resources are withdrawn, the UlordToken will be returned to the user account after deducting transaction fee. Therefore, Ulord can effectively prevent resources from being maliciously released (Spam);
Download resources: when users take online browsing, and download resources, the corresponding UlordToken in accordance with the set value of resources will be paid;
Resources propagation: when users share resources of other users; when the resource is connected with consumption behavior, benefit from resources spreading can be obtained.
Obtain benefits by providing resources storage: when user upgrades hardware, provide storage and download service as the central node, obtain benefits.
Obtain benefits by providing computing resources: when user node participates in the distributed accounting as miner to obtain benefits from it;
Initiate the proposal: when user initiates the proposal according to network content review, there is a need to pay UlordToken;
System R&D/maintenance: the system will reserve a certain proportion of UlordToken for proposal voting, functional research and development.
Integrated service process
The main process of platform layer service is as follows:
a. User joins Ulord network, and searches a file called “XX comedy film” in the network through the client;
b. Ulord network quickly index hash value on blockchain, and provides the relevant search results;
c. The user pays the corresponding UlordToken according to the paying information of the returned file, and “XX comedy film” file is cached to local place. “XX comedy film” file is not downloaded from cloud or server, but certain one or some nodes in Ulord;
d. In Ulord network, user resources are generally stored in Ulord nodes after being encrypted in blocks, and each block is stored in multiple user nodes or center nodes. Ulord network automatically searches the fastest way to download and recombine resources, so as to ensure that users can download file in the most efficient way;
e. After the user caches the files on his computer, he cannot only watch it, but also share to others;
f. You can also forward the resources in the network, and have the opportunity to get UlordToken.
3.AI service moduleIn platform layer, we add AI service mode, and the data the mode needs to process comes from two ways:
a. The operation data produced by the application layer, including user behavior data and application behavior data, etc.
b. The operation data of the platform layer and the base layer. Through AI technology, the operation of the underlying system can be more secure, stable and efficient.
The functions supported by AI include three parts: generation management, quality control and distribution effect management.
It includes real-time tracking of popular sites and hot content, fast analysis of real-time, authority, influence and attractiveness of contents, information management and behavior analysis of high-quality authors. It attracts excellent content creators to build site by various ways.
Original content validation: with block record information of the base layer, the originality of contents is analyzed, so as to prevent malicious imitation, and talking about old topics.
Sensitive information review: in addition to voting review mechanism, the system takes the vulgar content recognition based on AI; through semantic analysis and image detection identification, it controls pornographic and political sensitive topics.
Distribution effect management
Accurate recommendation: the site’s personalized content accurate push is achieved by searching users’ concerns and interests through their visits (browsing page, browsing order, browsing time).
The optimization of transmission path: based on the knowledge map, the propagation path is selected and optimized, the content access through the combination of the related contents is improved, and the user experience is better.
Malicious node analysis: the malicious nodes of “strip wool” in the content communication link are identified and removed to safeguard legitimate rights and interests of real users.
Australian entrepreneur Craig Wright gave interview to BBC News in May 2016 and publicly identified himself as Bitcoin creator. If you watch his interview below, you will clearly notice that he is nothing more than a bad actor. I wonder how much the agency and core development team of Bitcoin headed by Satoshi paid him to make such bogus claims. A programmer is easily identified by the level ... The Curious Case of Bitcoin’s “Moby Dick” Spam and the Miners That Confirmed It. by Aaron van Wirdum. September 27, 2017 . The scaling debate has dominated the Bitcoin space for well over two years now. As a central issue, Bitcoin’s one-megabyte block size limit was often insufficient to include all transactions on the network. This ultimately led to the replacement of this block size ... Bitcoin's Academic Pedigree The concept of cryptocurrencies is built from forgotten ideas in research literature. Arvind Narayanan and Jeremy Clark. If you've read about bitcoin in the press and have some familiarity with academic research in the field of cryptography, you might reasonably come away with the following impression: Several decades' worth of research on digital cash, beginning ... The email letters that Hal Finney (First person to receive bitcoin transaction from Satoshi. He died in the same year, 2014. Surprisingly Finney is Nick Szabo’s closest friend since 1993..) supplied to The Wall Street Journal in the spring of 2014 and which were written in Jan 2009, has a bitcoin address that Satoshi shared with Finney which has initials matching Nick Szabo’s name. Bitcoin medals are seen in Washington, June 17, 2014. On May 2, an Australian entrepreneur, identified as Craig Wright, revealed himself as the creator following years of speculation about who ...
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VeriBlock has recently been taking up about one quarter of bitcoin transactions, using OP_RETURN for "proof-of-proof" (PoP). Is this spam? How does Bitcoin's... NEW CHANNEL: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCH9HlTrjyLmLRS0iE1P4rrg ----- Rich Dad Poor Dad: https://amzn.to/3cKJ4Ia C... Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, a 64-year-old retired engineer, is denying that he was the creator of Bitcoin. The reporter who identified him sits down with CNN. Check out the Cryptocurrency Technical Analysis Academy here: https://bit.ly/3n5TUxS Use the coupon code "September2020" to get $40 off of the Cryptocurrency... Australian entrepreneur Craig White has publicly identified himself as Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto. ... This is what happens when you reply to spam email James Veitch - Duration: 9:49. TED ...