|Google Auth||Authy||OTP Auth|
|Gyft||Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.|
|Spendabit, Overstock and The Bitcoin Directory||Retail shopping with millions of results|
|ShakePay||Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds|
|NewEgg and Dell||For all your electronics needs|
|Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Coinsfer, and more||Bill payment|
|Menufy, Takeaway and Thuisbezorgd NL||Takeout delivered to your door|
|Expedia, Cheapair, Destinia, Abitsky, SkyTours, the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats||For when you need to get away|
|Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA||VPN services|
|Namecheap, Porkbun||Domain name registration|
|Stampnik||Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage|
|WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, Cryptogrind, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, BitforTip, Rein Project||Freelancing|
|Lolli||Earn bitcoin when you shop online!|
|OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market||Marketplaces|
|/GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW||Adult services|
|Lightning Network||Second layer scaling|
|Blockstream, Rootstock and Drivechain||Sidechains|
|Hivemind and Augur||Prediction markets|
|Tierion and Factom||Records & Titles on the blockchain|
|BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar||Decentralized markets|
|JoinMarket and Wasabi Wallet||CoinJoin implementation|
|Coinffeine and Bisq||Decentralized bitcoin exchanges|
|Keybase||Identity & Reputation management|
|Abra||Global P2P money transmitter network|
|bitcoin||BTC||1 bitcoin||one bitcoin is equal to 100 million satoshis|
|millibitcoin||mBTC||1,000 per bitcoin||used as default unit in recent Electrum wallet releases|
|bit||bit||1,000,000 per bitcoin||colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin (μBTC)|
|satoshi||sat||100,000,000 per bitcoin||smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor|
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]
According To Experts, Bitcoin Still Has A Momentum That Will Allow It To Reach New All-Time Highs
Bitcoin is expected to hit a new all-time high just a day after Christmas, according to the crypto analyst, Vijay Boyapati. The expert claims that Bitcoin would see a massive spike in its price if the digital currency follows the exact same trajectory that it followed after the 2016 halving event.
The “halving” cuts in half the reward Bitcoin miners receive for validating transactions on the blockchain. Bitcoin’s network underwent three halving events, the first one being in 2012. The second event occurred 4 years later – in 2016, while the third halving took place on May 11, 2020.
According to Boyapati, there has been 100 days since the last Bitcoin halving, with current price of the digital currency еqual to 59.4% of the previous all-time high record. The expert also adds “How does this compare to the 2016/17 cycle? If we project % of ATH in 2016 to now, 100 days after halving, Bitcoin was $10,887”, Boyapati wrote on Twitter.
The predictions of the crypto expert are based on the 2016/2017 post-halving price movements of the leader in digital currencies. Also, the analyst noted that if comparing the movements of Bitcoin after the 2016 halving, the price per BTC could be expected to reach around $325,000 by October 2021.
“The peak of the cycle would occur on October 19th, 2021, but we are ahead of schedule right now” Boyapati tweeted.
However, crypto traders saw a short-term price correction, after Bitcoin’s price went above $12,000 on August 17. Just a day after Bitcoin marked a yearly high of $12,359.06, the market saw a steep correction, which drove Bitcoin prices back to $11,769.77, as of press time.
One of the possibilities behind Bitcoin’s correction is the U.S. national bank’s announcement of the continuation of bond-buying and near-zero interest rate policy. The situation drove investors off safe-haven assets like Bitcoin and gold and redirected them into buying USD, which is at its two-year low.
Nevertheless, crypto expert Lark Davis considers that Bitcoin still has the momentum to break above its all-time high record, as long the cryptocurrency stays above its technical indicators.
“Understand that Bitcoin drop by about 24% and still be above the 200-day moving average which means this market is still basically bullish AF”, Davis tweeted.
submitted by Smart_Smell to Robopay [link] [comments]
3 months later. How the profitability of mining changed after halving
On May 11, the size of the Bitcoin mining reward fell by half. The next time it will be in 2024. What devices will be profitable by that time, and what to hope for owners of obsolete equipment.
In May 2020, a halving took place on the bitcoin network. The cryptocurrency mining reward has decreased from 12.5 to 6.25 BTC. This is a long-awaited event, which, according to the hopes of the crypto community, should lead to a strong increase in the value of the coin. For example, Anthony Pompliano, co-founder of investment company Morgan Creek Digital, predicted that the rate would rise to $100,000 by the end of 2021, primarily due to lower mining rewards.
So far, the bitcoin price hasn’t responded to the halving as much as expected. In mid-May, at the time of the reduction in the mining reward, the BTC rate was around $9,000. To date, the cryptocurrency has risen in price by 27%. This year’s high was set yesterday, August 18, at $12,400.
The hashrate of the cryptocurrency network showed a different dynamics. Its value fell immediately after the halving from 137.5 to 87 EH/s, according to bitinfocharts.com. Since mining bitcoins has become less profitable, some of the miners probably turned off their equipment. They could switch to mining other coins or completely abandon this activity due to its unprofitability.
Later, when the BTC rate began to rise, the amount of computing power in the coin’s network also began to increase. So, from late May to mid-August, the cryptocurrency hash rate increased from 87 to 130 EH/s. But over the past three days, the figure has dropped sharply by 20%, caused by floods in China. Torrential rains in Sichuan province caused power outages that interfered with the operation of mining farms.
Changes in hashrate and mining rewards have affected its difficulty. On May 11, at the time of the halving, this figure was at around 16.1 T. By the current moment, this value has increased to 16.9 T, in July rising to a maximum of 17.3 T.
The decline in the reward for mining cryptocurrency was partially offset by the increase in fees. Until May, a single BTC transfer cost the user an average of 50 cents. By the current moment, commissions have grown more than 10 times, to $5.5.
Mining profitability is now at around 0.114 THash/s. It fell sharply immediately after the halving from 0.16 to 0.08 THash/s. To date, the indicator has grown by 40%. This was due to the rise in BTC prices and higher fees.
Development Director at BitCluster Dmitry Shuvaev said that the profitability of the device for mining BTC s17–73Th/s is now about 8 thousand rubles per month (at an electricity price of 3.5 rubles per kWh). The payback period is about 15 months. Old devices, such as the Antminer S9, are now unprofitable to use, they do not bring profit. But this situation may change if the bitcoin rate rises to $15,000.
“We recommend our customers to buy the new generation S17 or S19 devices. It is these devices that will provide profitability until the next halving. Their break-even point is at $6,000 per bitcoin”, Shuvaev said.
In June, specialists from the research division of the BitMEX exchange announced that in the long term, 2–3 ASIC miner manufacturers will remain in the industry. Canaan’s Avalon devices were the first to hit the market in 2014. Three years later, in 2017, Bitmain took 75% of the market.
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The Federal Reserve and the United States government are pumping extreme amounts of money into the economy, already totaling over $484 billion. They are doing so because it already had a goal to inflate the United States Dollar (USD) so that the market can continue to all-time highs. It has always had this goal. They do not care how much inflation goes up by now as we are going into a depression with the potential to totally crash the US economy forever. They believe the only way to save the market from going to zero or negative values is to inflate it so much that it cannot possibly crash that low. Even if the market does not dip that low, inflation serves the interest of powerful people.
The impending crash of the stock market has ramifications for Bitcoin, as, though there is no direct ongoing-correlation between the two, major movements in traditional markets will necessarily affect Bitcoin. According to the Blockchain Center’s Cryptocurrency Correlation Tool, Bitcoin is not correlated with the stock market. However, when major market movements occur, they send ripples throughout the financial ecosystem which necessary affect even ordinarily uncorrelated assets.
Therefore, Bitcoin will reach X price on X date after crashing to a price of X by X date.
Stock Market CrashThe Federal Reserve has caused some serious consternation with their release of ridiculous amounts of money in an attempt to buoy the economy. At face value, it does not seem to have any rationale or logic behind it other than keeping the economy afloat long enough for individuals to profit financially and politically. However, there is an underlying basis to what is going on which is important to understand in order to profit financially.
All markets are functionally price probing systems. They constantly undergo a price-discovery process. In a fiat system, money is an illusory and a fundamentally synthetic instrument with no intrinsic value – similar to Bitcoin. The primary difference between Bitcoin is the underlying technology which provides a slew of benefits that fiat does not. Fiat, however, has an advantage in being able to have the support of powerful nation-states which can use their might to insure the currency’s prosperity.
Traditional stock markets are composed of indices (pl. of index). Indices are non-trading market instruments which are essentially summaries of business values which comprise them. They are continuously recalculated throughout a trading day, and sometimes reflected through tradable instruments such as Exchange Traded Funds or Futures. Indices are weighted by market capitalizations of various businesses.
Price theory essentially states that when a market fails to take out a new low in a given range, it will have an objective to take out the high. When a market fails to take out a new high, it has an objective to make a new low. This is why price-time charts go up and down, as it does this on a second-by-second, minute-by-minute, day-by-day, and even century-by-century basis. Therefore, market indices will always return to some type of bull market as, once a true low is formed, the market will have a price objective to take out a new high outside of its’ given range – which is an all-time high. Instruments can only functionally fall to zero, whereas they can grow infinitely.
So, why inflate the economy so much?
Deflation is disastrous for central banks and markets as it raises the possibility of producing an overall price objective of zero or negative values. Therefore, under a fractional reserve system with a fiat currency managed by a central bank – the goal of the central bank is to depreciate the currency. The dollar is manipulated constantly with the intention of depreciating its’ value.
Central banks have a goal of continued inflated fiat values. They tend to ordinarily contain it at less than ten percent (10%) per annum in order for the psyche of the general populace to slowly adjust price increases. As such, the markets are divorced from any other logic. Economic policy is the maintenance of human egos, not catering to fundamental analysis. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is well-known not to be a measure of actual growth or output. It is a measure of increase in dollars processed. Banks seek to produce raising numbers which make society feel like it is growing economically, making people optimistic. To do so, the currency is inflated, though inflation itself does not actually increase growth. When society is optimistic, it spends and engages in business – resulting in actual growth. It also encourages people to take on credit and debts, creating more fictional fiat.
Inflation is necessary for markets to continue to reach new heights, generating positive emotional responses from the populace, encouraging spending, encouraging debt intake, further inflating the currency, and increasing the sale of government bonds. The fiat system only survives by generating more imaginary money on a regular basis.
Bitcoin investors may profit from this by realizing that stock investors as a whole always stand to profit from the market so long as it is managed by a central bank and does not collapse entirely. If those elements are filled, it has an unending price objective to raise to new heights. It also allows us to realize that this response indicates that the higher-ups believe that the economy could crash in entirety, and it may be wise for investors to have multiple well-thought-out exit strategies.
Economic Analysis of BitcoinThe reason why the Fed is so aggressively inflating the economy is due to fears that it will collapse forever or never rebound. As such, coupled with a global depression, a huge demand will appear for a reserve currency which is fundamentally different than the previous system. Bitcoin, though a currency or asset, is also a market. It also undergoes a constant price-probing process. Unlike traditional markets, Bitcoin has the exact opposite goal. Bitcoin seeks to appreciate in value and not depreciate. This has a quite different affect in that Bitcoin could potentially become worthless and have a price objective of zero.
Bitcoin was created in 2008 by a now famous mysterious figure known as Satoshi Nakamoto and its’ open source code was released in 2009. It was the first decentralized cryptocurrency to utilize a novel protocol known as the blockchain. Up to one megabyte of data may be sent with each transaction. It is decentralized, anonymous, transparent, easy to set-up, and provides myriad other benefits. Bitcoin is not backed up by anything other than its’ own technology.
Bitcoin is can never be expected to collapse as a framework, even were it to become worthless. The stock market has the potential to collapse in entirety, whereas, as long as the internet exists, Bitcoin will be a functional system with a self-authenticating framework. That capacity to persist regardless of the actual price of Bitcoin and the deflationary nature of Bitcoin means that it has something which fiat does not – inherent value.
Bitcoin is based on a distributed database known as the “blockchain.” Blockchains are essentially decentralized virtual ledger books, replete with pages known as “blocks.” Each page in a ledger is composed of paragraph entries, which are the actual transactions in the block.
Blockchains store information in the form of numerical transactions, which are just numbers. We can consider these numbers digital assets, such as Bitcoin. The data in a blockchain is immutable and recorded only by consensus-based algorithms. Bitcoin is cryptographic and all transactions are direct, without intermediary, peer-to-peer.
Bitcoin does not require trust in a central bank. It requires trust on the technology behind it, which is open-source and may be evaluated by anyone at any time. Furthermore, it is impossible to manipulate as doing so would require all of the nodes in the network to be hacked at once – unlike the stock market which is manipulated by the government and “Market Makers”. Bitcoin is also private in that, though the ledge is openly distributed, it is encrypted. Bitcoin’s blockchain has one of the greatest redundancy and information disaster recovery systems ever developed.
Bitcoin has a distributed governance model in that it is controlled by its’ users. There is no need to trust a payment processor or bank, or even to pay fees to such entities. There are also no third-party fees for transaction processing. As the ledge is immutable and transparent it is never possible to change it – the data on the blockchain is permanent. The system is not easily susceptible to attacks as it is widely distributed. Furthermore, as users of Bitcoin have their private keys assigned to their transactions, they are virtually impossible to fake. No lengthy verification, reconciliation, nor clearing process exists with Bitcoin.
Bitcoin is based on a proof-of-work algorithm. Every transaction on the network has an associated mathetical “puzzle”. Computers known as miners compete to solve the complex cryptographic hash algorithm that comprises that puzzle. The solution is proof that the miner engaged in sufficient work. The puzzle is known as a nonce, a number used only once. There is only one major nonce at a time and it issues 12.5 Bitcoin. Once it is solved, the fact that the nonce has been solved is made public.
A block is mined on average of once every ten minutes. However, the blockchain checks every 2,016,000 minutes (approximately four years) if 201,600 blocks were mined. If it was faster, it increases difficulty by half, thereby deflating Bitcoin. If it was slower, it decreases, thereby inflating Bitcoin. It will continue to do this until zero Bitcoin are issued, projected at the year 2140. On the twelfth of May, 2020, the blockchain will halve the amount of Bitcoin issued when each nonce is guessed. When Bitcoin was first created, fifty were issued per block as a reward to miners. 6.25 BTC will be issued from that point on once each nonce is solved.
Unlike fiat, Bitcoin is a deflationary currency. As BTC becomes scarcer, demand for it will increase, also raising the price. In this, BTC is similar to gold. It is predictable in its’ output, unlike the USD, as it is based on a programmed supply. We can predict BTC’s deflation and inflation almost exactly, if not exactly. Only 21 million BTC will ever be produced, unless the entire network concedes to change the protocol – which is highly unlikely.
Some of the drawbacks to BTC include congestion. At peak congestion, it may take an entire day to process a Bitcoin transaction as only three to five transactions may be processed per second. Receiving priority on a payment may cost up to the equivalent of twenty dollars ($20). Bitcoin mining consumes enough energy in one day to power a single-family home for an entire week.
Trading or Investing?The fundamental divide in trading revolves around the question of market structure. Many feel that the market operates totally randomly and its’ behavior cannot be predicted. For the purposes of this article, we will assume that the market has a structure, but that that structure is not perfect. That market structure naturally generates chart patterns as the market records prices in time. In order to determine when the stock market will crash, causing a major decline in BTC price, we will analyze an instrument, an exchange traded fund, which represents an index, as opposed to a particular stock. The price patterns of the various stocks in an index are effectively smoothed out. In doing so, a more technical picture arises. Perhaps the most popular of these is the SPDR S&P Standard and Poor 500 Exchange Traded Fund ($SPY).
In trading, little to no concern is given about value of underlying asset. We are concerned primarily about liquidity and trading ranges, which are the amount of value fluctuating on a short-term basis, as measured by volatility-implied trading ranges. Fundamental analysis plays a role, however markets often do not react to real-world factors in a logical fashion. Therefore, fundamental analysis is more appropriate for long-term investing.
The fundamental derivatives of a chart are time (x-axis) and price (y-axis). The primary technical indicator is price, as everything else is lagging in the past. Price represents current asking price and incorrectly implementing positions based on price is one of the biggest trading errors.
Markets and currencies ordinarily have noise, their tendency to back-and-fill, which must be filtered out for true pattern recognition. That noise does have a utility, however, in allowing traders second chances to enter favorable positions at slightly less favorable entry points. When you have any market with enough liquidity for historical data to record a pattern, then a structure can be divined. The market probes prices as part of an ongoing price-discovery process. Market technicians must sometimes look outside of the technical realm and use visual inspection to ascertain the relevance of certain patterns, using a qualitative eye that recognizes the underlying quantitative nature
Markets and instruments rise slower than they correct, however they rise much more than they fall. In the same vein, instruments can only fall to having no worth, whereas they could theoretically grow infinitely and have continued to grow over time. Money in a fiat system is illusory. It is a fundamentally synthetic instrument which has no intrinsic value. Hence, the recent seemingly illogical fluctuations in the market.
According to trade theory, the unending purpose of a market or instrument is to create and break price ranges according to the laws of supply and demand. We must determine when to trade based on each market inflection point as defined in price and in time as opposed to abandoning the trend (as the contrarian trading in this sub often does). Time and Price symmetry must be used to be in accordance with the trend. When coupled with a favorable risk to reward ratio, the ability to stay in the market for most of the defined time period, and adherence to risk management rules; the trader has a solid methodology for achieving considerable gains.
We will engage in a longer term market-oriented analysis to avoid any time-focused pressure. The Bitcoin market is open twenty-four-hours a day, so trading may be done when the individual is ready, without any pressing need to be constantly alert. Let alone, we can safely project months in advance with relatively high accuracy. Bitcoin is an asset which an individual can both trade and invest, however this article will be focused on trading due to the wide volatility in BTC prices over the short-term.
Technical Indicator Analysis of BitcoinTechnical indicators are often considered self-fulfilling prophecies due to mass-market psychology gravitating towards certain common numbers yielded from them. They are also often discounted when it comes to BTC. That means a trader must be especially aware of these numbers as they can prognosticate market movements. Often, they are meaningless in the larger picture of things.
Trend Definition Analysis of BitcoinTrend definition is highly powerful, cannot be understated. Knowledge of trend logic is enough to be a profitable trader, yet defining a trend is an arduous process. Multiple trends coexist across multiple time frames and across multiple market sectors. Like time structure, it makes the underlying price of the instrument irrelevant. Trend definitions cannot determine the validity of newly formed discretes. Trend becomes apparent when trades based in counter-trend inflection points continue to fail.
Downtrends are defined as an instrument making lower lows and lower highs that are recurrent, additive, qualified swing setups. Downtrends for all instruments are similar, except forex. They are fast and complete much quicker than uptrends. An average downtrend is 18 months, something which we will return to. An uptrend inception occurs when an instrument reaches a point where it fails to make a new low, then that low will be tested. After that, the instrument will either have a deep range retracement or it may take out the low slightly, resulting in a double-bottom. A swing must eventually form.
A simple way to roughly determine trend is to attempt to draw a line from three tops going upwards (uptrend) or a line from three bottoms going downwards (downtrend). It is not possible to correctly draw a downtrend line on the BTC chart, but it is possible to correctly draw an uptrend – indicating that the overall trend is downwards. The only mitigating factor is the impending stock market crash.
Time Symmetry Analysis of BitcoinTime is the movement from the past through the present into the future. It is a measurement in quantified intervals. In many ways, our perception of it is a human construct. It is more powerful than price as time may be utilized for a trade regardless of the market inflection point’s price. Were it possible to perfectly understand time, price would be totally irrelevant due to the predictive certainty time affords. Time structure is easier to learn than price, but much more difficult to apply with any accuracy. It is the hardest aspect of trading to learn, but also the most rewarding.
Humans do not have the ability to recognize every time window, however the ability to define market inflection points in terms of time is the single most powerful trading edge. Regardless, price should not be abandoned for time alone. Time structure analysis It is inherently flawed, as such the markets have a fail-safe, which is Price Structure. Even though Time is much more powerful, Price Structure should never be completely ignored. Time is the qualifier for Price and vice versa. Time can fail by tricking traders into counter-trend trading.
Time is a predestined trade quantifier, a filter to slow trades down, as it allows a trader to specifically focus on specific time windows and rest at others. It allows for quantitative measurements to reach deterministic values and is the primary qualifier for trends. Time structure should be utilized before price structure, and it is the primary trade criterion which requires support from price. We can see price structure on a chart, as areas of mathematical support or resistance, but we cannot see time structure.
Time may be used to tell us an exact point in the future where the market will inflect, after Price Theory has been fulfilled. In the present, price objectives based on price theory added to possible future times for market inflection points give us the exact time of market inflection points and price.
Time Structure is repetitions of time or inherent cycles of time, occurring in a methodical way to provide time windows which may be utilized for inflection points. They are not easily recognized and not easily defined by a price chart as measuring and observing time is very exact. Time structure is not a science, yet it does require precise measurements. Nothing is certain or definite. The critical question must be if a particular approach to time structure is currently lucrative or not.
We will measure it in intervals of 180 bars. Our goal is to determine time windows, when the market will react and when we should pay the most attention. By using time repetitions, the fact that market inflection points occurred at some point in the past and should, therefore, reoccur at some point in the future, we should obtain confidence as to when SPY will reach a market inflection point. Time repetitions are essentially the market’s memory. However, simply measuring the time between two points then trying to extrapolate into the future does not work. Measuring time is not the same as defining time repetitions. We will evaluate past sessions for market inflection points, whether discretes, qualified swings, or intra-range. Then records the times that the market has made highs or lows in a comparable time period to the future one seeks to trade in.
What follows is a time Histogram – A grouping of times which appear close together, then segregated based on that closeness. Time is aligned into combined histogram of repetitions and cycles, however cycles are irrelevant on a daily basis. If trading on an hourly basis, do not use hours.
Evaluating the yearly lows, we see that BTC tends to have its lows primarily at the beginning of every year, with a possibility of it being at the end of the year. Following the same methodology, we get the middle of the month as the likeliest day. However, evaluating the monthly lows for the past year, the beginning and end of the month are more likely for lows.
Therefore, we have two primary dates from our histogram.
1/1/21, 1/15/21, and 1/29/21
2:00am, 8:00am, 12:00pm, or 10:00pm
In fact, the high for this year was February the 14th, only thirty days off from our histogram calculations.
The 8.6-Year Armstrong-Princeton Global Economic Confidence model states that 2.15 year intervals occur between corrections, relevant highs and lows. 2.15 years from the all-time peak discrete is February 9, 2020 – a reasonably accurate depiction of the low for this year (which was on 3/12/20). (Taking only the Armstrong model into account, the next high should be Saturday, April 23, 2022). Therefore, the Armstrong model indicates that we have actually bottomed out for the year!
Bear markets cannot exist in perpetuity whereas bull markets can. Bear markets will eventually have price objectives of zero, whereas bull markets can increase to infinity. It can occur for individual market instruments, but not markets as a whole. Since bull markets are defined by low volatility, they also last longer. Once a bull market is indicated, the trader can remain in a long position until a new high is reached, then switch to shorts. The average bear market is eighteen months long, giving us a date of August 19th, 2021 for the end of this bear market – roughly speaking. They cannot be shorter than fifteen months for a central-bank controlled market, which does not apply to Bitcoin. (Otherwise, it would continue until Sunday, September 12, 2021.) However, we should expect Bitcoin to experience its’ exponential growth after the stock market re-enters a bull market.
Terry Laundy’s T-Theory implemented by measuring the time of an indicator from peak to trough, then using that to define a future time window. It is similar to an head-and-shoulders pattern in that it is the process of forming the right side from a synthetic technical indicator. If the indicator is making continued lows, then time is recalculated for defining the right side of the T. The date of the market inflection point may be a price or indicator inflection date, so it is not always exactly useful. It is better to make us aware of possible market inflection points, clustered with other data. It gives us an RSI low of May, 9th 2020.
The Bradley Cycle is coupled with volatility allows start dates for campaigns or put options as insurance in portfolios for stocks. However, it is also useful for predicting market moves instead of terminal dates for discretes. Using dates which correspond to discretes, we can see how those dates correspond with changes in VIX.
Therefore, our timeline looks like:
This article is written by the CoinEx Chain lab. CoinEx Chain is the world’s first public chain exclusively designed for DEX, and will also include a Smart Chain supporting smart contracts and a Privacy Chain protecting users’ privacy.submitted by coinexchain to u/coinexchain [link] [comments]
longcpp @ 20200618
This is Part 1 of the serialized articles aimed to explain the Tendermint consensus protocol in detail.
Part 1. Preliminary of the consensus protocol: security model and PBFT protocol
Part 2. Tendermint consensus protocol illustrated: two-phase voting protocol and the locking and unlocking mechanism
Part 3. Weighted round-robin proposer selection algorithm used in Tendermint project
Any consensus agreement that is ultimately reached is the General Agreement, that is, the majority opinion. The consensus protocol on which the blockchain system operates is no exception. As a distributed system, the blockchain system aims to maintain the validity of the system. Intuitively, the validity of the blockchain system has two meanings: firstly, there is no ambiguity, and secondly, it can process requests to update its status. The former corresponds to the safety requirements of distributed systems, while the latter to the requirements of liveness. The validity of distributed systems is mainly maintained by consensus protocols, considering the multiple nodes and network communication involved in such systems may be unstable, which has brought huge challenges to the design of consensus protocols.
The semi-synchronous network model and Byzantine fault toleranceResearchers of distributed systems characterize these problems that may occur in nodes and network communications using node failure models and network models. The fail-stop failure in node failure models refers to the situation where the node itself stops running due to configuration errors or other reasons, thus unable to go on with the consensus protocol. This type of failure will not cause side effects on other parts of the distributed system except that the node itself stops running. However, for such distributed systems as the public blockchain, when designing a consensus protocol, we still need to consider the evildoing intended by nodes besides their failure. These incidents are all included in the Byzantine Failure model, which covers all unexpected situations that may occur on the node, for example, passive downtime failures and any deviation intended by the nodes from the consensus protocol. For a better explanation, downtime failures refer to nodes’ passive running halt, and the Byzantine failure to any arbitrary deviation of nodes from the consensus protocol.
Compared with the node failure model which can be roughly divided into the passive and active models, the modeling of network communication is more difficult. The network itself suffers problems of instability and communication delay. Moreover, since all network communication is ultimately completed by the node which may have a downtime failure or a Byzantine failure in itself, it is usually difficult to define whether such failure arises from the node or the network itself when a node does not receive another node's network message. Although the network communication may be affected by many factors, the researchers found that the network model can be classified by the communication delay. For example, the node may fail to send data packages due to the fail-stop failure, and as a result, the corresponding communication delay is unknown and can be any value. According to the concept of communication delay, the network communication model can be divided into the following three categories:
The design and selection of consensus protocols for public chain networks that allow nodes to dynamically join and leave need to consider possible Byzantine failures. Therefore, the consensus protocol of a public chain network is designed to guarantee the security and liveness of the network under the semi-synchronous network model on the premise of possible Byzantine failure. Researchers of distributed systems point out that to ensure the security and liveness of the system, the consensus protocol itself needs to meet three requirements:
The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals ProblemIn a semi-synchronous network, is it possible to design a Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that satisfies validity, agreement, and termination? How many Byzantine nodes can a system tolerance? The CAP theorem and Byzantine Generals Problem provide an answer for these two questions and have thus become the basic guidelines for the design of Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocols.
Lamport, Shostak, and Pease abstracted the design of the consensus mechanism in the distributed system in 1982 as the Byzantine Generals Problem, which refers to such a situation as described below: several generals each lead the army to fight in the war, and their troops are stationed in different places. The generals must formulate a unified action plan for the victory. However, since the camps are far away from each other, they can only communicate with each other through the communication soldiers, or, in other words, they cannot appear on the same occasion at the same time to reach a consensus. Unfortunately, among the generals, there is a traitor or two who intend to undermine the unified actions of the loyal generals by sending the wrong information, and the communication soldiers cannot send the message to the destination by themselves. It is assumed that each communication soldier can prove the information he has brought comes from a certain general, just as in the case of a real BFT consensus protocol, each node has its public and private keys to establish an encrypted communication channel for each other to ensure that its messages will not be tampered with in the network communication, and the message receiver can also verify the sender of the message based thereon. As already mentioned, any consensus agreement ultimately reached represents the consensus of the majority. In the process of generals communicating with each other for an offensive or retreat, a general also makes decisions based on the majority opinion from the information collected by himself.
According to the research of Lamport et al, if there are 1/3 or more traitors in the node, the generals cannot reach a unified decision. For example, in the following figure, assume there are 3 generals and only 1 traitor. In the figure on the left, suppose that General C is the traitor, and A and B are loyal. If A wants to launch an attack and informs B and C of such intention, yet the traitor C sends a message to B, suggesting what he has received from A is a retreat. In this case, B can't decide as he doesn't know who the traitor is, and the information received is insufficient for him to decide. If A is a traitor, he can send different messages to B and C. Then C faithfully reports to B the information he received. At this moment as B receives conflicting information, he cannot make any decisions. In both cases, even if B had received consistent information, it would be impossible for him to spot the traitor between A and C. Therefore, it is obvious that in both situations shown in the figure below, the honest General B cannot make a choice.
According to this conclusion, when there are $n$ generals with at most $f$ traitors (n≤3f), the generals cannot reach a consensus if $n \leq 3f$; and with $n > 3f$, a consensus can be reached. This conclusion also suggests that when the number of Byzantine failures $f$ exceeds 1/3 of the total number of nodes $n$ in the system $f \ge n/3$ , no consensus will be reached on any consensus protocol among all honest nodes. Only when $f < n/3$, such condition is likely to happen, without loss of generality, and for the subsequent discussion on the consensus protocol, $ n \ge 3f + 1$ by default.
The conclusion reached by Lamport et al. on the Byzantine Generals Problem draws a line between the possible and the impossible in the design of the Byzantine fault tolerance consensus protocol. Within the possible range, how will the consensus protocol be designed? Can both the security and liveness of distributed systems be fully guaranteed? Brewer provided the answer in his CAP theorem in 2000. It indicated that a distributed system requires the following three basic attributes, but any distributed system can only meet two of the three at the same time.
A distributed system aims to provide consistent services. Therefore, the consistency attribute requires that the two nodes in the system cannot provide conflicting status information or expired information, which can ensure the security of the distributed system. The availability attribute is to ensure that the system can continuously update its status and guarantee the availability of distributed systems. The partition tolerance attribute is related to the network communication delay, and, under the semi-synchronous network model, it can be the status before GST when the network is in an asynchronous status with an unknown delay in the network communication. In this condition, communicating nodes may not receive information from each other, and the network is thus considered to be in a partitioned status. Partition tolerance requires the distributed system to function normally even in network partitions.
The proof of the CAP theorem can be demonstrated with the following diagram. The curve represents the network partition, and each network has four nodes, distinguished by the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4. The distributed system stores color information, and all the status information stored by all nodes is blue at first.
The discovery of the CAP theorem seems to declare that the aforementioned goals of the consensus protocol is impossible. However, if you’re careful enough, you may find from the above that those are all extreme cases, such as network partitions that cause the failure of information transmission, which could be rare, especially in P2P network. In the second case, the system rarely returns the same information with node 2, and the general practice is to query other nodes and return the latest status as believed after a while, regardless of whether it has received the request information of other nodes. Therefore, although the CAP theorem points out that any distributed system cannot satisfy the three attributes at the same time, it is not a binary choice, as the designer of the consensus protocol can weigh up all the three attributes according to the needs of the distributed system. However, as the communication delay is always involved in the distributed system, one always needs to choose between availability and consistency while ensuring a certain degree of partition tolerance. Specifically, in the second case, it is about the value that node 2 returns: a probably outdated value or no value. Returning the possibly outdated value may violate consistency but guarantees availability; yet returning no value deprives the system of availability but guarantees its consistency. Tendermint consensus protocol to be introduced is consistent in this trade-off. In other words, it will lose availability in some cases.
The genius of Satoshi Nakamoto is that with constraints of the CAP theorem, he managed to reach a reliable Byzantine consensus in a distributed network by combining PoW mechanism, Satoshi Nakamoto consensus, and economic incentives with appropriate parameter configuration. Whether Bitcoin's mechanism design solves the Byzantine Generals Problem has remained a dispute among academicians. Garay, Kiayias, and Leonardos analyzed the link between Bitcoin mechanism design and the Byzantine consensus in detail in their paper The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. In simple terms, the Satoshi Consensus is a probabilistic Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol that depends on such conditions as the network communication environment and the proportion of malicious nodes' hashrate. When the proportion of malicious nodes’ hashrate does not exceed 1/2 in a good network communication environment, the Satoshi Consensus can reliably solve the Byzantine consensus problem in a distributed environment. However, when the environment turns bad, even with the proportion within 1/2, the Satoshi Consensus may still fail to reach a reliable conclusion on the Byzantine consensus problem. It is worth noting that the quality of the network environment is relative to Bitcoin's block interval. The 10-minute block generation interval of the Bitcoin can ensure that the system is in a good network communication environment in most cases, given the fact that the broadcast time of a block in the distributed network is usually just several seconds. In addition, economic incentives can motivate most nodes to actively comply with the agreement. It is thus considered that with the current Bitcoin network parameter configuration and mechanism design, the Bitcoin mechanism design has reliably solved the Byzantine Consensus problem in the current network environment.
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, PBFTIt is not an easy task to design the Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol in a semi-synchronous network. The first practically usable Byzantine fault-tolerant consensus protocol is the Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) designed by Castro and Liskov in 1999, the first of its kind with polynomial complexity. For a distributed system with $n$ nodes, the communication complexity is $O(n2$.) Castro and Liskov showed in the paper that by transforming centralized file system into a distributed one using the PBFT protocol, the overwall performance was only slowed down by 3%. In this section we will briefly introduce the PBFT protocol, paving the way for further detailed explanations of the Tendermint protocol and the improvements of the Tendermint protocol.
The PBFT protocol that includes $n=3f+1$ nodes can tolerate up to $f$ Byzantine nodes. In the original paper of PBFT, full connection is required among all the $n$ nodes, that is, any two of the n nodes must be connected. All the nodes of the network jointly maintain the system status through network communication. In the Bitcoin network, a node can participate in or exit the consensus process through hashrate mining at any time, which is managed by the administrator, and the PFBT protocol needs to determine all the participating nodes before the protocol starts. All nodes in the PBFT protocol are divided into two categories, master nodes, and slave nodes. There is only one master node at any time, and all nodes take turns to be the master node. All nodes run in a rotation process called View, in each of which the master node will be reelected. The master node selection algorithm in PBFT is very simple: all nodes become the master node in turn by the index number. In each view, all nodes try to reach a consensus on the system status. It is worth mentioning that in the PBFT protocol, each node has its own digital signature key pair. All sent messages (including request messages from the client) need to be signed to ensure the integrity of the message in the network and the traceability of the message itself. (You can determine who sent a message based on the digital signature).
The following figure shows the basic flow of the PBFT consensus protocol. Assume that the current view’s master node is node 0. Client C initiates a request to the master node 0. After the master node receives the request, it broadcasts the request to all slave nodes that process the request of client C and return the result to the client. After the client receives f+1 identical results from different nodes (based on the signature value), the result can be taken as the final result of the entire operation. Since the system can have at most f Byzantine nodes, at least one of the f+1 results received by the client comes from an honest node, and the security of the consensus protocol guarantees that all honest nodes will reach consensus on the same status. So, the feedback from 1 honest node is enough to confirm that the corresponding request has been processed by the system.
For the status synchronization of all honest nodes, the PBFT protocol has two constraints on each node: on one hand, all nodes must start from the same status, and on the other, the status transition of all nodes must be definite, that is, given the same status and request, the results after the operation must be the same. Under these two constraints, as long as the entire system agrees on the processing order of all transactions, the status of all honest nodes will be consistent. This is also the main purpose of the PBFT protocol: to reach a consensus on the order of transactions between all nodes, thereby ensuring the security of the entire distributed system. In terms of availability, the PBFT consensus protocol relies on a timeout mechanism to find anomalies in the consensus process and start the View Change protocol in time to try to reach a consensus again.
The figure above shows a simplified workflow of the PBFT protocol. Where C is the client, 0, 1, 2, and 3 represent 4 nodes respectively. Specifically, 0 is the master node of the current view, 1, 2, 3 are slave nodes, and node 3 is faulty. Under normal circumstances, the PBFT consensus protocol reaches consensus on the order of transactions between nodes through a three-phase protocol. These three phases are respectively: Pre-Prepare, Prepare, and Commit:
In the three-phase protocol execution of the PBFT protocol, in addition to maintaining the status information of the distributed system, the node itself also needs to log all kinds of consensus information it receives. The gradual accumulation of logs will consume considerable system resources. Therefore, the PBFT protocol additionally defines checkpoints to help the node deal with garbage collection. You can set a checkpoint every 100 or 1000 sequence numbers according to the request sequence number. After the client request at the checkpoint is executed, the node broadcasts
The three-phase protocol of the PBFT protocol can ensure the consistency of the processing order of the client request, and the checkpoint mechanism is set to help nodes perform garbage collection and further ensures the status consistency of the distributed system, both of which can guarantee the security of the distributed system aforementioned. How is the availability of the distributed system guaranteed? In the semi-synchronous network model, a timeout mechanism is usually introduced, which is related to delays in the network environment. It is assumed that the network delay has a known upper bound after GST. In such condition, an initial value is usually set according to the network condition of the system deployed. In case of a timeout event, besides the corresponding processing flow triggered, additional mechanisms will be activated to readjust the waiting time. For example, an algorithm like TCP's exponential back off can be adopted to adjust the waiting time after a timeout event.
To ensure the availability of the system in the PBFT protocol, a timeout mechanism is also introduced. In addition, due to the potential the Byzantine failure in the master node itself, the PBFT protocol also needs to ensure the security and availability of the system in this case. When the Byzantine failure occurs in the master node, for example, when the slave node does not receive the PRE-PREPARE message or the PRE-PREPARE message sent by the master node from the master node within the time window and is thus determined to be illegitimate, the slave node can broadcast
VIEWCHANGE contains a lot of information. For example, C contains 2f+1 signature information, P contains several signature sets, and each set has 2f+1 signature. At least 2f+1 nodes need to send a VIEWCHANGE message before prompting the system to enter the next new view, and that means, in addition to the complex logic of constructing the information of VIEWCHANGE and NEW-VIEW, the communication complexity of the view conversion protocol is $O(n2$.) Such complexity also limits the PBFT protocol to support only a few nodes, and when there are 100 nodes, it is usually too complex to practically deploy PBFT. It is worth noting that in some materials the communication complexity of the PBFT protocol is inappropriately attributed to the full connection between n nodes. By changing the fully connected network topology to the P2P network topology based on distributed hash tables commonly used in blockchain projects, high communication complexity caused by full connection can be conveniently solved, yet still, it is difficult to improve the communication complexity during the view conversion process. In recent years, researchers have proposed to reduce the amount of communication in this step by adopting aggregate signature scheme. With this technology, 2f+1 signature information can be compressed into one, thereby reducing the communication volume during view change.
NOTE: If you are new to Peercoin, check out the Peercoin Primer, a short 5 part video series covering the basic fundamentals of Peercoin.submitted by Sentinelrv to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]
Peercoin v0.9 Released!We are pleased to announce that after many hard months of work, Peercoin v0.9 (Codename Strider) is complete and a hard fork is planned for Monday, June 8th, 2020 at 12:00:00 UTC. You must upgrade your wallet client before then!
Changelog:Peercoin release v0.9.0
While Peercoin v0.8 (Mantis) was largely about modernizing the codebase and improving the technical capabilities of the reference node software, the v0.9 (Strider) development cycle was about the economics of the Peercoin cryptocurrrency.
Before installation, make sure to backup your wallet from the main menu.The v0.9 client can be downloaded from the wallets page of peercoin.net. For users upgrading from v0.8, upgrade instructions can also be found on that page.
For the minority of users that may have skipped v0.8 and are upgrading from v0.7 or earlier, please check these additional instructions from the previous v0.8 release thread as you will need to go through the additional process of rebuilding your block database. If you need help with installation, leave a comment below.
ConclusionTo stay informed as we get closer to the hard fork date, you can follow the latest Peercoin news on our forums, our Twitter, or Reddit.
Other places to follow us:
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Don't forget you can see the latest updates using the Blockfolio and Delta Apps!
Download Link: https://github.com/peercoin/peercoin/releases/tag/v0.9.0ppc
Final reminder: The upgrade deadline is planned for June 8th, 2020 at 12:00:00 UTC
submitted by Crypto_Browser to CryptoBrowser_EN [link] [comments]
With The Third Bitcoin Halving Already Here, Bitcoin Bulls Are Showing No Signs Of Support For The World’s Leading Cryptocurrency
While the crypto world was frantic about Bitcoin’s third halving event, which occurred on May 12, it came with a bullish sentiment among traders and holders. However, the halving produced 5%-8% price swings in both directions prior to the halving. The market didn’t seem to respond to the much-anticipated halving. The weekend saw $1,3 billion in liquidations, which put pressure on Bitcoin bulls. Shortly after Bitcoin’s reward cut, Bitcoin’s price peaked, before correcting itself to currently trading at $8,745.98
Meanwhile, the Bitcoin mining industry seems to be going all-in on validating blocks, as the computing power on Bitcoin’s network, or hashrate, increased to a new all-time high. The 140 terra hash-per-second (TH/s) all-time high surpassed the recent 135 TH/s all-time high of March 2020, meaning that miners deployed all their recourses to celebrate the halving event.
The crypto community welcomed the halving, as TIE published data, showing the word “halving” being present in over 2,900 tweets. Reddit also showed signs of buzzing in the moments prior to the halving and shortly after it. Joshua Frank, TIE’s founder commented on the data, stating that “Bitcoin became a hot topic in the past 30 days, with a 72-percent conversation surge, and with peaks in search terms of Bitcoin and halving crypto related terms in Twitter. Bitcoin also surpassed 50,000 daily tweets, which is a new six-month high.”
“In the 30-day window prior to the halving, the word “halving” appears to be dominant in the conversations, regarding Bitcoin,” Frank added.
Google searches for “bitcoin halving also increased four times, as opposed to the 2016 halving event.
However, most crypto enthusiasts believed Bitcoin would record double, or even triple-digit price increase, due to the halving. The short rally proved them wrong, but many consider the real price surge to start in the following 18 to 24 months. Historically, Bitcoin showed an initial decrease in value before skyrocketing in both price and trading volumes.
The halving event drove an increase in daily trading volumes in the month before the reward cut. However, trading volumes have increased 50 times since the last halving in 2016. Spot market volumes received a boost from a peak of $1,5 billion in June 2016, and it was close to $30 billion in April 2020.
Nevertheless, market players are still stagnant about making strong predictions about Bitcoin’s future price, as this time it would take longer for the market to gain from the bullish momentum the halving created.
Today, when the Covid-19 is outbreaking throughout the world, the worldwide finical markets are suffering and the governments are taking multiple urgent methods to fight against the coming finical crisis. The U.S. stocks melted down for the fourth time in ten days, the New York Stock Exchange was shut down urgently, and financiers urged the government to stop shorting stocks and make every effort to resolve the liquidity crisis.submitted by bztianjiao to Pigeoncoin [link] [comments]
The crypto market has also taken a beating. The whole market cap evaporated over 50% within 2 weeks. Small crypto projects are suffering and several uncompetitive projects have been dumped to zero since no buying orders have been placed on the market, essentially a death sentence. But this is just the beginning of the nightmare. No snowflake is innocent during an avalanche.
As an early involved member of Pigeoncoin and having volunteered many years of my energy to help make progress for this project, I am calling on your support for a smooth block reward reduction proposal to help our projects survive this crisis.
Reasons why we need a change on our coin emission:
(1) The economic model and coin emission rate are not well designed to survive in the bear market.
As we know Pigeoncoin is a fork from RVN and as such just inherited the Bitcoin mining release mechanism concentrated by 1000. This means we have 7.2M daily coin emissions. The founder Luke and genesis team were great to launch the chain with a nice idea ——working on an algo innovation and leading the way for a decentralized social media platform for the community to explore. Pigeoncoin was born at the end of the last BTC bull run, enjoying its merits and growing fast, however, it lacked a robust economic model and the talent to point out these defects. With years of the slow movement towards our decentralized goal, the community is no longer as active as before and we gradually lost support from our previous members, when the community is not expanding its scale, while a large number of coins are mined and dumped on the market, it is inevitable to see the price drop and early holders are losing hope. A healthy circumstance is that we have the hope to hold and to attract more people to join us who are concerned about the problem our goal aims to solve, then the liquidity will be positive since there would be rising demand so the supply would be balanced. But during a long-term bear market and shrinking of the community members, demand is very limited while the coin supply remains very high, causing us to fall into a vicious cycle.
(2) Harsh market conditions make us very vulnerable
It has been noticed by a lot of our community members that there has been a dominant unknown hashrate on our PGN network. Though the incentive of these mystery miners is still unclear, it is without doubt damaging to our decentralized spirit. Unfortunately, there were no effective methods to drive these big mining monopiles away from small altcoins, especially when small miners have no advantage competing with them (Cheap equipment, electrics, money) during the bear marketing since no one wishes to mine at a loss. Clues have been provided from an exchange that whale miners are continuing to kill price. Recently several altcoins projects report that they are dominated by unknow miners. If you are interested please go to miningpoolstats to find some more evidence of this. A small project was recently 51% attacked 2 weeks ago after it was dominated for a period. We are also highly vulnerable since no one could predict these senseless actions would be taken by outrageous crypto miners during the market depression.
(3) Liquidity is almost exhausted at this moment
Not like someone mentioned since we have high coin supply and everyone would have equal right to buy a bunch of PGN at a bargained price. The cruel fact is that if you take a look at the exchange liquidity, I couldn’t tell how bad the situation is. Though other altcoins may have the same problem at this moment when the price is infinitely close to zero and most of the people lost hope and choose to dump and leave the community, it is hardly an easy task to regain the confidence again so that would be the end game of the project. So, we should face the fact that not the more coins the better, we should start to find a way to take efficient actions to survive through the crisis.
The proposal of launching a smooth BR reduction in PGN network
In light of the discussions above, I am proposing a smooth BR reduction proposal to help the Pigeoncoin community work through this hard time. Many altcoin communities have discussed and started block reward reduction actions in the last year to tweak their economic model and optimize their coin emission rate to keep the balance of the market performance and community confidence. Beam for example, initially reduced its block reward on January 5th which is a modification of its traditional BTC coin emission model. Ritocoin, we are familiar with its block reward reduction after mainnet had been running for months to help the confidence of the market. Sero coin has voted and executed twice halving within 4 months with community support. In other words, the community should dynamically incorporate its coin emission according to the market environment and it is also a genius exploration of community governance. Famous projects like ETH, DASH, EOS all have adjusted its coin emission rate with a hardfork after community agreement.
Pigeoncoin is very unique since we are going to implement masternodes on our network and the nature of masternodes is to encourage more masternodes to be set up to develop the network. Although setting up masternodes would make contributions to reduce the dumping pressure on the market, the masternodes mechanism is not a hardlock. When the price is fluctuating, masternode holders can easily release coins from the masternode to the market, and 20% BR from masternode is a limited amount to help reduce the supply in the long run.
As the goal of Pigeoncoin is to offer accessible coins for more crypto users, we have a 21 billion total coin supply and we all agree on this design. After finding the most suitable method to help optimize coin emissions, I would suggest we take the smooth BR reduction model from Ritocoin which has been tested and found to be robust and efficient. The idea behind the smooth block reward reduction is to accomplish a reduction without causing a major upset to the market economics of the coin (i.e. avoid the traditional halving behavior).
We should consider to implement this BR reduction mechanism since it is a very efficient way to cope with the incoming crisis and maintain the development of Pigeoncoin to realize our goal. Since we are planning to launch our hard fork for masternode next month I suggest the most cost-efficient way is to raise community discussion and vote for a choice if we should take this as an opportunity upon next hardfork to avoid frequent forking.
Here are two ways of possible voting:
Ø 2 versions of clients and let the miners choose which they support as a final network.
Ø After our Masternode fork once Masternode voting has been enabled.
Thanks for your concern, and I wish we can work together to help our Pigeoncoin community fight through this hard time and realize our ambiguous goal. I wish you and your beloved have good health and everyone could embrace the next crypto bull run.
|Bank Transfer||Credit / Debit card||Cash|
|Gyft||Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.|
|Steam, HumbleBundle, Games Planet, itch.io, g2g and kinguin||For when you need to get your game on|
|Microsoft||Xbox games, phone apps and software|
|Spendabit, The Bitcoin Shop, Overstock, DuoSearch, The Bitcoin Directory and BazaarBay||Retail shopping with millions of results|
|ShakePay||Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds|
|NewEgg and Dell||For all your electronics needs|
|Cashila, Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, Pey.de, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Hyphen.to, Coinsfer, GetPaidinBitcoin, Coins.co.th, More #1, #2||Bill payment|
|Foodler, Menufy, Takeaway, Thuisbezorgd NL, Pizza For Coins||Takeout delivered to your door!|
|Expedia, Cheapair, Lot, Destinia, BTCTrip, Abitsky, SkyTours, Fluege the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats||For when you need to get away|
|BoltVM, BitHost||VPS service|
|Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA||VPN services|
|Namecheap, Porkbun||For new domain name registration|
|Stampnik and GetUSPS||Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage|
|Reddit Gold||Premium membership which can be gifted to others|
|WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, XBTfreelancer, Cryptogrind, Bitlancerr, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, Rein Project||Freelancing|
|OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market||Marketplaces|
|Watchmybit, Streamium.io, OTika.tv, XOtika.tv NSFW, /GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW||Video Streaming|
|Bitasker, BitforTip, WillPayCoin||Tasks|
|Supload.com, SatoshiBox, JoyStream, File Army||File/Image Sharing|
|CoinAd, A-ads, Coinzilla.io||Advertising|
|Lightning Network, Amiko Pay, and Strawpay||Payment channels for network scaling|
|Blockstream and Drivechain||Sidechains|
|21, Inc.||Open source library for the machine payable web|
|ShapeShift.io||Trade between bitcoins and altcoins easily|
|Open Transactions, Counterparty, Omni, Open Assets, Symbiont and Chain||Financial asset platforms|
|Hivemind and Augur||Prediction markets|
|Mediachain||Decentralized media library|
|Tierion and Factom||Records & Titles on the blockchain|
|BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar||Decentralized markets|
|Samourai and Dark Wallet - abandoned||Privacy-enhancing wallets|
|JoinMarket||CoinJoin implementation (Increase privacy and/or Earn interest on bitcoin holdings)|
|Coinffeine and Bitsquare||Decentralized bitcoin exchanges|
|Keybase and Bitrated||Identity & Reputation management|
|Bitmesh and Telehash||Mesh networking|
|JoyStream||BitTorrent client with paid seeding|
|MORPHiS||Decentralized, encrypted internet|
|Storj and Sia||Decentralized file storage|
|Streamium and Faradam||Pay in real time for on-demand services|
|Abra||Global P2P money transmitter network|
|bitSIM||PIN secure hardware token between SIM & Phone|
|Identifi||Decentralized address book w/ ratings system|
|Coinometrics||Institutional-level Bitcoin Data & Research|
|Blocktrail and BitGo||Multisig bitcoin API|
|Insight||Open source blockchain API|
|Leet||Kill your friends and take their money ;)|
|millibitcoin||mBTC||1,000 per bitcoin||SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)|
|microbitcoin||μBTC||1,000,000 per bitcoin||SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (μL) or micrometre (μm)|
|bit||bit||1,000,000 per bitcoin||Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin|
|satoshi||sat||100,000,000 per bitcoin||Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor|
Difficulty is re-calculated every 2016 blocks to ensure blocks are found every 10 minutes on average. As more computers attempt to mine Bitcoin Core (BTC) and increase the Hash Rate, the difficulty will increase. If the Hash Rate decreases, difficulty will decrease. In Bitcoin network there's global difficulty set for all blocks. For block to be considered legitimate it has to have ... Our network's hashrate for previous 2016 blocks was: D * 2**32 / 0xffff / 600. Without significant accuracy loss we can simplify it down to: D * 2**32 / 600. At difficulty of 1 that is roughly 7 Mhash/s. Average time of finding a single block can be calculated using this ... We Can See Satoshi’s Hashrate Using Historic Bitcoin Mining Data. Satoshi Nakamoto didn’t just invent bitcoin: he was also the bitcoin network’s biggest miner during the early days of the network. New research shows that we can actually identify Satoshi’s hashrate by analyzing historic bitcoin mining data.. More research was posted online this past week at OrganOfCorti.blogspot.com. Bitcoin Price Prediction & Forecast - Bitcoin Price is speculated to reach $23500 by 2020 End & $33788 by 2021. Get expert opition on short-term and long-term bitcoin price prediction, and learn what will be the value of Bitcoin in 2025 and 2030! Bitcoin’s hashrate is a good indicator of the network’s health. The higher the hash power of the network, the larger the number of miners that would be required to commit a 51% attack. Therefore, ownership of hash power, if concentrated amongst a few firms, can be a security risk hence a great concern.
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️ Leverage OPM (Other People's Money): http://opm.cryptonewsalerts.net Bitcoin pioneer Max Keiser, RT host of the Keiser Report recently tweeted the followi... The Bitcoin Mempool, Difficulty Adjustment, Hashrate, Block Time, Block Reward, Transaction Fees and much more is explained simply in this video. Bitcoin onchain data: https://studio.glassnode.com ... Bitcoin network hashrate. El mejor sitio de estadisticas bitcoin y 4 Educación Financiera y Criptomonedas. Loading... Unsubscribe from Educación Financiera y Criptomonedas? ... The 𝗵𝗶𝗴𝗵𝗲𝗿 the hashrate, the more 𝘀𝗲𝗰𝘂𝗿𝗲 the network is.” This indicates that Bitcoin is more secure as a computational network than ever before, even though ... There's a FAKE voskcoins site impersonating VoskCoin offering cloud mining, new GPU's and CPU's for mining, Coinbase update, Bitcoin network hashrate update and more crypto news! Sub to VoskCoin ...